Olden et al., (2011) predicted the vulnerability of lakes and streams in Wisconsin to the introduction and establishment of invasive rusty crayfish (F. rusticus). The authors identiﬁed 115 lakes and ~5000 km of streams in Wisconsin having at least a 25% chance for the introduction and establishment of rusty crayfish and the eventual extirpation of a native congeneric crayfish. These results can aid in the identification of priority sites for prevention efforts given a maximum level of acceptable risk or budgetary or time restrictions.
Patoka et al., (2014) conducted an assessment of the invasion risk posed by the crayfish pet trade in Europe. They determined that the potential invasiveness of crayfishes native to North America was significantly higher than that of crayfishes from the rest of the world. Among the crayfish species with the highest potential invasiveness was the red swamp crayfish, a prevalent invader in the Great Lakes and surrounding areas.